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It is well-known that using the sieve of Eratosthenes, we can generate the sequence of primes $2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,\ldots\), which is known to be infinite.

It is a longstanding problem to prove if there are (or there are not) infinitely many twin primes \((3,5),~(5,7),~(11,13),~(17,19),~(29,31),\ldots\).

There exists an efficient method6913 to sieve all twin primes of the form \((6k-1,6k+1)\), \(k=1,2,\ldots\).

Note that these are all twin primes except the twin primes \((3,5)\). This is because even almost all primes (and not only twin primes) can be written in this form1.

A Sieve for Twin Primes and the Twin Prime Sequence

  1. Start with the sequence of positive natural numbers \(1,2,3,4,\ldots\).
  2. Use the known infinite sequence of primes \(p > 3\), i.e. the primes \(5, 7, 11, 13,17, 19, 23, 29,\ldots\) in the following way:
    1. Set the number \(f_p\) to the value of the floor function \(f_p:=\lfloor (p+1)/6\rfloor\).
    2. Sieve from the above sequence of all positive natural numbers the numbers \(pk-f_p\) and \(pk+f_p\) for \(k=1,2,3,\ldots\).
    3. Repeat this procedure for all primes \(p > 3\).
  3. The remaining sequence starts with \(k=1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 18, 23, 25, 30, 32, 33,\ldots\).
  4. The twin primes can be restored from this remaining sequence as follows:
    1. Build pairs of numbers \((6k-1,6k+1)\) for \(k=1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 18, 23, 25, 30, 32, 33,\ldots\).
    2. These pairs are all twin primes, except \((3,5)\), i.e. the twin primes \((5,7),~(11,13),~(17,19),~(29,31),~(41,43),\ldots\).

The following figure visualizes this sieve method:

With this respect, the sequence \(k=1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 17, 18, 23, 25, 30, 32, 33,\ldots\) can be called the twin prime sequence.

The following lemma formalizes this result.

1 This is because for all remaining natural numbers \(n\), there is a \(k\ge 1\) such that \(n=6k-2\), or \(n=6k+2\), or \(n=6k-3\), or \(n=6k+3\), and all these numbers are divisible by \(2\) and \(3\). Since they are composite (i.e. not prime), all the remaining primes (and twin primes) must be of the form \(n=6k-1\) or \(n=6k+1\).

Lemma: Sieve for Twin Primes

Let $n\ge 1$ be an integer. The integer $a_n:=36n^2-1$ is the product of two twin primes $p=6n-1$ and $q=6n+1$ if and only if $n\not\equiv\pm f_s\mod s$ for all primes $s$ with $5\le s\le\sqrt q,$ where, using the floor function, the residue classes $f_s$ are defined by $$f_s:=\left\lfloor\frac {s+1}6\right\rfloor.$$

| | | | | created: 2020-03-13 23:37:28 | modified: 2020-03-14 12:05:41 | by: bookofproofs | references: [6913]

1.Proof: (related to "Sieve for Twin Primes")

Edit or AddNotationAxiomatic Method

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Bibliography (further reading)

[6913] Piotrowski, Andreas: Anmerkungen zur Verteilung der Primzahlzwillinge, Master’s thesis, Frankfurt am Main, 1999