## Ancient World (from 4000 BC to 1 BC)

Year | Mathematician | Achievements | Mathematics Category |
---|---|---|---|

about 2700 BC | Numerical Notation | Sumerian | |

about 2050 BC | Place-value Sexagesimal System | Sumerian | |

about 2000 BC | Megalithic Stone and Wood Settings | Western | |

ca. 1850 BC | Babylonian Mathematics | ||

ca. 1650 BC | Rhind Papyrus | Egyptian | |

ca. 1400 BC | Decimal Numeration | Chinese | |

1680 BC | Ahmes | Egyptian | |

800 BC | Baudhayana | Co-author of Sulbasutras, which contain geometric results (e.g. Pythagora’s theorem, however, without proofs, an approximation of $\sqrt{2}$ and constructing a square of side $\frac{13}{15}$ of the diameter of a given circle; all mathematical results were derived not for the sake of their own but for concrete religious purposes (e.g. building altars or sacrificial offerings). |
Indian |

750 BC | Manava | Co-author of Sulbasutras |
Indian |

624 BC | Thales of Miletus | First Theorems in Geometry | Greek |

611 BC | Anaximander of Miletus | First idea of the Universe: Sun, Moon, and planets revolving around the Earth, construction of a sundial | Greek |

600 BC | Apastamba | Co-author of Sulbasutras |
Indian |

569 BC | Pythagoras of Samos | The Pythagoreans find interconnections between number theory, geometry, astronomy, and music. | Greek |

520 BC | Panini | Forerunner of the modern formal language theory, notation analogous to modern Backus-Naur Form used to specify the syntax of computer languages. | Indian |

499 BC | Anaxagoras of Clazomenae | Proposition that the Moon reflects light from the “red-hot stone” which was the Sun; first understanding of centrifugal force; first known trials of squaring the circle with ruler and compasses (which was proven impossible not before 1882. | Ionian |

492 BC | Empedocles of Acragas | Four element theory of the world: fire, air, water, and earth; beginnings of empiric science: experiment showing that air exists and is not just empty space by observing that water did not enter a vessel when placed under water. | Greek |

490 BC | Oenopides of Chios | First estimation of the period after which the motions of the sun and moon came to repeat themselves to 59 years. Development of a theory for the Nile floods. | Greek |

490 BC | Zeno of Elea | Book containing forty paradoxes concerning the continuum (“paradoxes of motion”), some of which had an influence on the later development of mathematics. | Greek |

480 BC | Leucippus of Miletus | Together with Democritus, joint founder of the atomic theory, i.e. the theory that matter and space are not infinitely divisible. | Greek |

480 BC | Antiphon the Sophist | First to propose a “method of exhaustion”, i.e. calculating an area by approximating it by the areas of a sequence of polygons. | Greek |

470 BC | Hippocrates of Chios | In his attempts to square the circle, Hippocrates was able to find the areas of “lunes”, i.e. crescent-shaped figures, using his theorem that the ratio of the areas of two circles is the same as the ratio of the squares of their radii. | Greek |

465 BC | Theodorus of Cyrene | Contribution to the development of irrational numbers, Theodorus proved that $\sqrt 3, \sqrt 5, \ldots, \sqrt {17}$ were not commensurable in length with the unit length. | Greek |

460 BC | Democritus of Abdera | Together with Leucippus, joint founder of the atomic theory, i.e. the theory that matter and space are not infinitely divisible. | Greek |

460 BC | Hippias of Elis | Probably, the inventor of “quadratrix” which may have been used by him for trisecting an angle and squaring the circle. | Greek |

450 BC | Bryson of Heraclea | Bryson claimed that the circle was greater than all inscribed polygons and less than all circumscribed polygons. | Greek |

428 BC | Archytas of Tarentum | Finding two mean proportionals between two line segments; a solution to the problem of duplicating the cube; proof, that there can be no number which is a geometric mean between two numbers in the ratio $\frac{n+1}n.$ | Greek |

427 BC | Plato | Main contributions are in philosophy, mathematics, and science. Plato’s name is attached to the Platonic solids representing the “elements” i.e. cube (=earth), tetrahedron (=fire), octahedron (=air), icosahedron (=water). Plato associated the dodecahedron with the whole universe. | Greek |

417 BC | Theaetetus of Athens | Greek | |

408 BC | Eudoxus of Cnidus | theory of proportion, astronomy, exhaustion method | Greek |

400 BC | Gan De | ||

400 BC | Thymaridas of Paros | Greek | |

396 BC | Xenocrates of Chalcedon | Greek | |

390 BC | Dinostratus | Greek | |

387 BC | Heraclides of Pontus | Greek | |

384 BC | Aristotle | Beginnings of Propositional Logic | Greek |

380 BC | Menaechmus | Greek | |

370 BC | Callippus of Cyzicus | Greek | |

370 BC | Aristaeus the Elder | Greek | |

360 BC | Autolycus of Pitane | ||

350 BC | Eudemus of Rhodes | ||

325 BC | Euclid of Alexandria | ||

310 BC | Aristarchus of Samos | ||

287 BC | Archimedes of Syracuse | Greek | |

280 BC | Chrysippus of Soli | Greek | |

280 BC | Conon of Samos | ||

280 BC | Nicomedes | ||

280 BC | Philon of Byzantium | ||

276 BC | Eratosthenes of Cyrene | ||

262 BC | Apollonius of Perga | ||

250 BC | Dionysodorus | ||

240 BC | Diocles of Carystus | ||

200 BC | Katyayana | ||

200 BC | Zenodorus | ||

190 BC | Hipparchus of Rhodes | ||

190 BC | Hypsicles of Alexandria | ||

160 BC | Theodosius of Bithynia | ||

150 BC | Zeno of Sidon | ||

135 BC | Posidonius of Rhodes | ||

130 BC | Luoxia Hong | ||

85 BC | Marcus Vitruvius Pollio | ||

10 BC | Geminus | ||

0 BC | Hippasus of Metapontum |

| | | | created: 2016-08-22 23:25:49 | modified: 2019-04-24 23:19:35 | by: *bookofproofs*

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